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|<<||Selected anniversaries for November||>>|
|An archive of historical anniversaries that appeared on the Main Page|
2021 day arrangement
- 1141 – After Empress Matilda released her rival King Stephen, he in turn released Robert of Gloucester, her strongest supporter, thus prolonging the Anglo-Norman civil war known as The Anarchy.
- 1897 – Juventus, Italy's most successful football club, was founded as an athletics club.
- 1914 – World War I: The first contingent of the First Australian Imperial Force (soldiers pictured) departed Albany, Western Australia.
- 1941 – American photographer Ansel Adams shot Moonrise, Hernandez, New Mexico, one of his most famous photographs.
- 1956 – The Indian states Kerala, Andhra Pradesh, and Karnataka were formally created under the States Reorganisation Act.
- 619 – Emperor Gaozu allowed the assassination of a khagan of the Western Turkic Khaganate by Eastern Turkic rivals, one of the earliest events in the Tang campaigns against the Western Turks.
- 1917 – The British government issued the Balfour Declaration in support of a Jewish homeland in Palestine, then an Ottoman region with a small Jewish minority.
- 1963 – President Ngô Đình Diệm of South Vietnam was assassinated, marking the culmination of a coup d'état led by Dương Văn Minh.
- 1984 – The serial killer Velma Barfield became the first woman to be executed in the United States since 1962.
- 2007 – In Tbilisi, Georgia, tens of thousands of people demonstrated (police pictured) against the allegedly corrupt government of president Mikheil Saakashvili.
- 1534 – The Parliament of England passed the first Act of Supremacy, making King Henry VIII head of the Church of England, supplanting the pope and the Catholic Church.
- 1793 – French Revolution: Playwright, journalist and outspoken feminist Olympe de Gouges (pictured) was guillotined.
- 1898 – The Fashoda Incident ended with French forces withdrawing after several months of military stalemate with the British in Fashoda (now in South Sudan).
- 1954 – The first film featuring the giant monster known as Godzilla was released nationwide in Japan.
- 1996 – Abdullah Çatlı, a leader of the ultra-nationalist Grey Wolves, was killed in a car crash near Susurluk, Turkey, sparking a scandal that exposed the depth of the state's complicity in organized crime.
- 1780 – In the Spanish Viceroyalty of Peru, Túpac Amaru II led a rebellion of Aymara, Quechua, and mestizo peasants in protest against the Bourbon Reforms.
- 1890 – London's City and South London Railway, the first deep-level underground railway in the world, officially opened, running a distance of 3.2 mi (5.1 km) between the City of London and Stockwell.
- 1921 – The remains of an unknown soldier were buried with an eternal flame at the Altare della Patria (pictured) in Rome.
- 1944 – Second World War: Allied forces completed Operation Pheasant, a major operation to clear German troops from the province of North Brabant in the Netherlands.
- 2016 – The Paris Agreement under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change came into effect.
- 1138 – Lý Anh Tông was enthroned as Emperor of Đại Việt at the age of two, beginning a 37-year reign.
- 1605 – The arrest of Guy Fawkes, found during a search of the Palace of Westminster, foiled the Gunpowder Plot, which planned to blow up the House of Lords.
- 1916 – An armed confrontation in Everett, Washington, between local authorities and members of the Industrial Workers of the World resulted in seven deaths.
- 1943 – World War II: An unknown aircraft dropped four bombs on Vatican City, which maintained neutrality during the war.
- 1990 – Ultra-Zionist rabbi Meir Kahane (pictured) was assassinated in a New York City hotel by an Arab gunman.
- 1217 – King Henry III of England issued the Charter of the Forest, re-establishing the rights of access for free men to royal forests.
- 1868 – Red Cloud (pictured), a leader of the Oglala Lakota Native American tribe, signed the second Treaty of Fort Laramie, ending Red Cloud's War and establishing the Great Sioux Reservation.
- 1939 – As part of their plan to eradicate the Polish intellectual elite, the Gestapo arrested 184 professors, students and employees of the Jagiellonian University in Kraków.
- 1977 – The Kelly Barnes Dam in Stephens County, Georgia, collapsed; the resulting flood killed 39 people and caused US$2.8 million in damages.
- 2016 – Syrian civil war: The Syrian Democratic Forces launched the Raqqa campaign, a successful military operation with the goal of isolating and eventually capturing the Islamic State's capital city, Raqqa.
- 680 – The Third Council of Constantinople convened to settle the Christological controversies of monoenergism and monothelitism.
- 1775 – Lord Dunmore, the royal governor of the Colony of Virginia, signed a proclamation promising freedom for the slaves of Patriots if they joined the British Armed Forces.
- 1941 – World War II: German aircraft sank the Soviet hospital ship Armenia while she was evacuating civilians and wounded soldiers from Crimea, killing an estimated 5,000 people.
- 1949 – Oil was discovered in the Caspian Sea off the coast of Azerbaijan, leading to the construction of Neft Daşları, the world's first offshore oil platform.
- 1991 – Professional basketball player Magic Johnson (pictured) announced his retirement from the game because of his infection with HIV.
- 1278 – Trần Thánh Tông, the second emperor of Vietnam's Trần dynasty, took up the title of retired emperor, but continued to co-rule with his son Nhân Tông for eleven more years.
- 1861 – American Civil War: USS San Jacinto stopped RMS Trent (depicted) and arrested two Confederate envoys en route to Europe, sparking a major diplomatic crisis between the United Kingdom and the United States.
- 1940 – The Italian invasion of Greece failed as outnumbered Greek units repulsed the Italians at the Battle of Elaia–Kalamas.
- 1971 – English rock group Led Zeppelin released their fourth album, which became one of the best-selling albums worldwide.
- 2016 – The Government of India announced the demonetisation of certain banknotes, causing prolonged cash shortages in the weeks that followed and significant disruption throughout the economy.
- 1729 – Great Britain, France and Spain signed the Treaty of Seville to end the Anglo-Spanish War, despite the underlying tensions being left unresolved.
- 1888 – Mary Jane Kelly (pictured) was murdered in London; she is widely believed to be the fifth and final victim of the notorious unidentified serial killer Jack the Ripper.
- 1918 – The government of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic adopted a tricolour national flag that remains in use today with slight modifications by the present-day Republic of Azerbaijan.
- 1967 – The first issue of Rolling Stone, an American magazine focusing on music, politics and popular culture, was published.
- 2019 – Pakistani prime minister Imran Khan inaugurated the Kartarpur Corridor, a visa-free border crossing connecting the Gurdwara Darbar Sahib to the Indian border.
- 1202 – Fourth Crusade: The Siege of Zara (present-day Zadar, Croatia), the first attack on a Catholic city by Catholic crusaders, began.
- 1865 – Henry Wirz, the Confederate superintendent of Andersonville Prison, was hanged after a controversial conviction, becoming the only American Civil War soldier executed for war crimes.
- 1937 – Brazilian president Getúlio Vargas (pictured) led a coup against his own constitutional government, establishing the dictatorial Estado Novo regime.
- 1969 – The children's television series Sesame Street premiered in the United States.
- 2009 – Ships of the South Korean and North Korean navies skirmished off Daecheong Island in the Yellow Sea.
- 1215 – The Fourth Lateran Council convened in Rome, during which the Catholic doctrine of transubstantiation was defined.
- 1813 – War of 1812: A British–Canadian force repelled an American attack at the Battle of Crysler's Farm, forcing the United States to give up their attempt to capture Montreal.
- 1918 – The armistice between the German Empire and the Allies was signed in a railway carriage in the Forest of Compiègne of France (signatories pictured).
- 1965 – Rhodesia, led by Prime Minister Ian Smith, unilaterally declared independence from the United Kingdom.
- 1975 – During a constitutional crisis in Australia, Governor-General John Kerr dismissed Prime Minister Gough Whitlam's government and dissolved Parliament for a double-dissolution election.
- 1330 – Led by the voivode Basarab I, Wallachian forces defeated the Hungarian army in an ambush at the Battle of Posada.
- 1892 – William Heffelfinger (pictured) was paid $500 by the Allegheny Athletic Association, becoming the first professional American football player.
- 1940 – World War II: Soviet foreign minister Vyacheslav Molotov arrived in Berlin to discuss the possibility of the Soviet Union joining the Axis powers.
- 1991 – Indonesian forces opened fire on student demonstrators protesting the occupation of East Timor in the capital Dili, killing at least 250 people.
- 2011 – An explosion in the Shahid Modarres missile base led to the deaths of 17 members of the Revolutionary Guards, including Hassan Tehrani Moghaddam, a key figure in Iran's missile program.
- 1642 – First English Civil War: Royalist forces engaged the much larger Parliamentarian army at the Battle of Turnham Green near Turnham Green, Middlesex.
- 1841 – Scottish surgeon James Braid (pictured) observed a demonstration of animal magnetism, which inspired him to study the subject he eventually called hypnotism.
- 1927 – The Holland Tunnel, connecting Manhattan with Jersey City under the Hudson River, opened.
- 1966 – The Israeli military conducted a large cross-border assault on the Jordanian-controlled West Bank village of Samu in response to a Fatah land mine incident.
- 2015 – Coordinated terrorist attacks in Paris perpetrated by the Islamic State killed 130 people and injured 413 others.
- 1680 – German astronomer Gottfried Kirch discovered the Great Comet of 1680, the first comet to be discovered by telescope.
- 1910 – Aviator Eugene Burton Ely performed the first takeoff from a ship (pictured), flying from a makeshift deck on USS Birmingham in Hampton Roads, Virginia.
- 1941 – Second World War: After suffering torpedo damage the previous day, the British aircraft carrier HMS Ark Royal sank as she was being towed to Gibraltar for repairs.
- 1965 – Vietnam War: The United States Army and the People's Army of Vietnam engaged at the Battle of Ia Drang.
- 1975 – With the signing of the Madrid Accords, Spain agreed to withdraw its presence from the territory of Spanish Sahara.
- 565 – Justin II became Byzantine emperor, having allegedly been chosen by his uncle Justinian I as his successor on his deathbed.
- 1889 – Brazilian emperor Pedro II was overthrown in a coup led by Deodoro da Fonseca, while the country was proclaimed a republic.
- 1922 – Fountain of Time, in Chicago's Washington Park, was dedicated as a tribute to 100 years of peace between the United States and Great Britain following the Treaty of Ghent.
- 1943 – The Holocaust: Heinrich Himmler ordered that Romanies were to be put "on the same level as Jews and placed in concentration camps".
- 1988 – The Soviet Buran spacecraft (pictured), a reusable vehicle built in response to NASA's Space Shuttle program, was launched, uncrewed, on its only flight.
- 534 – The second edition of the Code of Justinian, a codification of Roman law by Byzantine emperor Justinian I, was published.
- 1776 – American Revolutionary War: British and Hessian units captured Fort Washington on Manhattan from the Patriots.
- 1938 – Swiss chemist Albert Hofmann first synthesized the psychedelic drug LSD in Basel, Switzerland.
- 1981 – About 30 million people watched the fictional couple Luke Spencer and Laura Webber marry on the television show General Hospital in the highest-rated hour in American soap opera history.
- 1997 – Chinese dissident Wei Jingsheng (pictured) was released for "medical reasons" after spending seventeen and a half of the previous eighteen years in prison, and was deported to the United States.
- 1796 – French Revolutionary Wars: French forces defeated the Austrians at the Battle of Arcole in a manoeuvre to cut the latter's line of retreat.
- 1950 – The 14th Dalai Lama (pictured) assumed full temporal power as ruler of Tibet at the age of fifteen.
- 1968 – NBC controversially cut away from an American football game between the Oakland Raiders and New York Jets to broadcast Heidi, causing viewers in the Eastern United States to miss the game's dramatic ending.
- 2009 – Administrators at the University of East Anglia's Climatic Research Unit discovered that their servers had been hacked and thousands of emails and files on climate change had been stolen.
- 1210 – Otto IV, Holy Roman Emperor, was excommunicated by Pope Innocent III after Otto commanded him to annul the Concordat of Worms.
- 1865 – "The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County" was published, becoming the first great success of American author Mark Twain (pictured).
- 1956 – At the Polish embassy in Moscow, Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev said "We will bury you" while addressing Western envoys, prompting them to leave the room.
- 1991 – Croatian War of Independence: The Yugoslav People's Army captured the Croatian city of Vukovar, ending an 87-day siege.
- 2014 – Two Palestinian men attacked the praying congregants of a synagogue in Jerusalem with axes, knives, and a gun, resulting in eight deaths, including the attackers themselves.
- 1620 – The Mayflower (depicted), which brought the Pilgrims from England to the New World, sighted Cape Cod.
- 1941 – World War II: The Australian light cruiser HMAS Sydney and the German auxiliary cruiser Kormoran destroyed each other in the Indian Ocean.
- 1969 – Playing for Santos against Vasco da Gama in Rio de Janeiro, Brazilian footballer Pelé scored his thousandth goal.
- 1991 – Mexican singer Luis Miguel released his album Romance, which led to the revival of interest in bolero music.
- 2004 – During a NBA game between the Indiana Pacers and the Detroit Pistons, a brawl between players spilled into the crowd when Ron Artest attacked a fan who had thrown a drink at him.
- 284 – Diocletian (bust pictured) became Roman emperor, eventually establishing reforms that ended the Crisis of the Third Century.
- 1739 – War of Jenkins' Ear: A British naval force arrived at the settlement of Portobello in the Spanish Main (now in Panama), which it captured the next day.
- 1902 – While discussing how to promote the newspaper L'Auto, sports journalist Géo Lefèvre came up with the idea of holding a cycling race that later became known as the Tour de France.
- 1979 – A group of armed insurgents attacked and took over the Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, declaring that one of their leaders was the Mahdi, the prophesied redeemer of Islam.
- 1991 – First Nagorno-Karabakh War: An Azerbaijani military helicopter carrying a peacekeeping mission team was shot down in Nagorno-Karabakh, Azerbaijan, disrupting the ongoing peace talks.
- 1386 – Turco-Mongol conqueror Timur captured and sacked the Georgian capital Tbilisi and forced King Bagrat V to convert to Islam.
- 1894 – First Sino-Japanese War: After capturing the Chinese city of Port Arthur, the Japanese army began a massacre of the city's soldiers and civilians.
- 1959 – American disc jockey Alan Freed (pictured), who popularized the term rock and roll, was fired from WABC-AM for his role in the payola scandal.
- 1974 – Bombs exploded in two pubs in central Birmingham, England, killing 21 people and leading to the imprisonment of six people who were later exonerated.
- 2009 – An explosion in a coal mine in Heilongjiang, China, killed 108 miners.
- 1635 – Dutch colonial forces on Taiwan launched a three-month pacification campaign against the island's indigenous peoples.
- 1718 – The pirate Blackbeard (pictured) was killed in battle by a boarding party of British sailors off the coast of the Province of North Carolina.
- 1908 – The Congress of Manastir standardized the Albanian alphabet, a date commemorated as Alphabet Day in Albania, Kosovo and North Macedonia.
- 1928 – Boléro, French composer Maurice Ravel's most famous musical composition, premiered at the Paris Opéra.
- 1971 – In Britain's worst mountaineering tragedy, the Cairngorm Plateau disaster, five teenage students and one of their leaders were found dead from exposure in the Scottish Highlands.
- 1733 – African slaves in the Danish West Indies began an insurrection in one of the earliest and longest slave revolts in the Americas.
- 1867 – The Manchester Martyrs were hanged in Manchester, England, for killing a police officer while helping two Irish nationalists escape from police custody.
- 1924 – The New York Times published evidence from Edwin Hubble (pictured) stating that the Andromeda Nebula, previously believed to be part of the Milky Way, is in fact another galaxy.
- 1976 – Jacques Mayol became the first person to freedive to a depth of 100 metres (330 ft).
- 2011 – Arab Spring: After 11 months of protests in Yemen, President Ali Abdullah Saleh agreed to transfer power to Vice President Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi.
- 1227 – Leszek the White, High Duke of Poland, was assassinated during a meeting of Piast dukes.
- 1859 – British naturalist Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species was first published, and sold out its initial print run on the first day.
- 1941 – The Holocaust: The Theresienstadt Ghetto was founded as a waystation to Nazi extermination camps and a "retirement settlement" for elderly and prominent Jews to mislead their communities about the Final Solution.
- 1971 – After collecting a ransom payout of $200,000, D. B. Cooper (depicted) parachuted out of the rear stairway of the airplane he had hijacked over the Pacific Northwest and disappeared.
- 2015 – A Turkish fighter jet shot down a Russian Sukhoi Su-24 after the latter allegedly strayed into Turkish airspace and ignored warnings to change course.
- 1510 – Afonso de Albuquerque, the governor of Portuguese India, led an armada to conquer Goa.
- 1678 – Trunajaya rebellion: After a series of difficult marches, allied Mataram and Dutch troops successfully assaulted the rebel stronghold of Kediri in eastern Java.
- 1936 – Nazi Germany and the Empire of Japan signed the Anti-Comintern Pact, agreeing that, if the Soviet Union attacked one of them, they would consult each other on what measures to take to "safeguard their common interests".
- 1975 – Upon Suriname's independence from the Netherlands, Johan Ferrier (pictured) became its first president.
- 1842 – The University of Notre Dame (main building pictured) was founded by Edward Sorin of the Congregation of Holy Cross as an all-male institution in the U.S. state of Indiana.
- 1852 – A massive earthquake struck the Dutch East Indies, creating a tsunami that caused major damage, washing away many villages, ships and residents.
- 1983 – Six robbers broke into a Brink's-Mat warehouse at Heathrow Airport in London and stole £26 million in gold, diamonds and cash.
- 2011 – U.S.-led NATO forces engaged Pakistani security forces at two Pakistani military checkposts along the Afghanistan–Pakistan border in a friendly fire incident.
- 1095 – At the Council of Clermont, Pope Urban II called for the First Crusade, declaring holy war against the Muslims who had occupied the Holy Land and were attacking the Eastern Roman Empire.
- 1703 – The great storm of 1703, one of the most severe storms to strike southern Great Britain, destroyed the first Eddystone Lighthouse off Plymouth.
- 1945 – A consortium of twenty-two U.S. charities founded CARE with the purpose of delivering food aid to Europe in the aftermath of World War II.
- 2001 – The Hubble Space Telescope detected sodium in the atmosphere of the extrasolar planet HD 209458 b (artist's impression pictured), the first planetary atmosphere outside our solar system to be measured.
- 936 – Shi Jingtang was enthroned as the first emperor of the Later Jin by Emperor Taizong of Liao.
- 1660 – At London's Gresham College, Robert Boyle, John Wilkins, Christopher Wren and other leading scientists founded a learned society now known as the Royal Society.
- 1943 – World War II: U.S. president Franklin D. Roosevelt, British prime minister Winston Churchill, and Soviet premier Joseph Stalin (all three pictured) met at the Tehran Conference to discuss war strategy against the Axis powers.
- 1987 – South African Airways Flight 295 suffered a catastrophic in-flight fire and crashed into the Indian Ocean east of Mauritius, killing all 159 on board.
- 903 – The Abbasid Caliphate captured the Qarmatian leadership in the Battle of Hama in Syria, opening the way for the reconquest of Tulunid Egypt.
- 1776 – American Revolutionary War: British reinforcements brought an end to the Patriot attempt to capture Fort Cumberland in Nova Scotia.
- 1890 – The National Diet of Japan (pictured in session), a bicameral legislature modelled after both the German Reichstag and the British Westminster system, first met in Tokyo.
- 1947 – The United Nations General Assembly voted to approve the Partition Plan for Palestine, a plan to resolve the Arab–Israeli conflict in the British Mandate of Palestine by separating the territory into Jewish and Arab states.
- 2007 – During their trial for the 2003 Oakwood mutiny, Philippine soldiers led by Senator Antonio Trillanes mutinied and seized a conference room in The Peninsula Manila hotel in Makati.
November 30: Day of Remembrance for all Victims of Chemical Warfare; Saint Andrew's Day (Christianity); Guru Nanak Gurpurab (Sikhism, 2020)
- 1700 – Great Northern War: Swedish forces led by King Charles XII defeated the Russian army at the Battle of Narva.
- 1803 – An expedition led by Francisco Javier de Balmis departed A Coruña, Spain, with the aim of vaccinating millions in South America and Asia against smallpox.
- 1942 – World War II: Japanese warships defeated the U.S. Navy in a nighttime naval battle off Tassafaronga, Guadalcanal.
- 1962 – Following the death of Dag Hammarskjöld, Burmese diplomat U Thant was elected secretary-general of the United Nations.
- 1999 – Protests by anti-globalization activists (pictured) against the World Trade Organization Ministerial Conference in Seattle forced the cancellation of its opening ceremonies.