List of cervids

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Eight cervid species (counterclockwise from top left): the red deer (Cervus elaphus), sika deer (Cervus nippon), barasingha (Rucervus duvaucelii), reindeer (Rangifer tarandus), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), gray brocket (Mazama gouazoubira), elk (Cervus canadensis), and southern pudú (Pudu puda)

Cervidae is a family of hoofed ruminant mammals in the order Artiodactyla. A member of this family is called a deer or a cervid. They are widespread throughout North and South America, Europe, and Asia, and are found in a wide variety of biomes. Cervids range in size from the 60 cm (24 in) long and 32 cm (13 in) tall pudú to the 3.4 m (11.2 ft) long and 3.4 m (11.2 ft) tall moose. Most species do not have population estimates, though the roe deer has a population size of approximately 15 million, while several are considered endangered or critically endangered with populations as low as 200. One species, Père David's deer, is extinct in the wild, and one, Schomburgk's deer, went extinct in 1938.

The fifty-four species of Cervidae are split into eighteen genera within three subfamilies: Capreolinae (New World deer), Cervinae (Old World deer), and Hydropotinae (water deer). Extinct species have also been placed into Capreolinae and Cervinae. More than one hundred extinct Cervidae species have been discovered, though due to ongoing research and discoveries the exact number and categorization is not fixed.

Conventions

IUCN Red List categories
Conservation status
 EX Extinct (1 species)
 EW Extinct in the wild (1 species)
 CR Critically Endangered (2 species)
 EN Endangered (6 species)
 VU Vulnerable (16 species)
 NT Near threatened (4 species)
 LC Least concern (14 species)
Other categories
 DD Data deficient (9 species)
 NE Not evaluated (1 species)

Conservation status codes listed follow the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species. Range maps are provided wherever possible; if a range map is not available, a description of the cervid's range is provided. Ranges are based on the IUCN Red List for that species unless otherwise noted. All extinct species or subspecies listed alongside extant species went extinct after 1500 CE, and are indicated by a dagger symbol "Extinct".

Classification

The family Cervidae consists of 53 extant species belonging to 18 genera in 3 subfamilies and divided into dozens of extant subspecies. This does not include hybrid species or extinct prehistoric species. Additionally, one species, Schomburgk's deer, went extinct in 1938.

Cervidae  
Cervinae  

Elaphodus

Muntiacus

Dama

Rusa

Cervus

Elaphurus

Rucervus

Axis

Capreolinae  

Rangifer

Mazama

Odocoileus

Blastocerus

Hippocamelus

Ozotoceros

Pudu

Capreolus

Alces

Hydropotinae  

Hydropotes

Cervids

The following classification is based on the taxonomy described by Mammal Species of the World (2005), with augmentation by generally accepted proposals made since using molecular phylogenetic analysis. This includes merging the two moose species of Alces into one and splitting out the genus Hyelaphus from Axis. There are several additional proposals which are disputed, such as splitting out the monotypic Panolia genus from Rucervus, combining the monotypic subfamily Hydropotinae with Capreolinae, or the addition of the fair brocket to the Mazama genus, which are not included here.

Subfamily Capreolinae

Genus Alces (Gray, 1821) – one species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population
Moose

Large dark brown cervid

A. alces
Linnaeus, 1758

Nine subspecies
  • A. a. alces (European elk)
  • A. a. americanus (Eastern moose)
  • A. a. andersoni (Western moose)
  • A. a. buturlini (Chukotka elk)
  • A. a. caucasicus (Caucasian moose)Extinct
  • A. a. cameloides (Ussuri elk)
  • A. a. gigas (Alaskan moose)
  • A. a. pfizenmayeri (Yakutia elk)
  • A. a. shirasi (Shiras' moose)
North America, Europe, and Asia
Size: 230–340 cm (91–134 in) long, plus 8–12 cm (3–5 in) tail; up to 230 cm (91 in) tall at shoulder

Habitat: Forest and inland wetlands

Diet: Vegetative parts of trees, as well as shrubs, herbs, and aquatic plants
 LC 


2,000,000 Population increasing

Genus Blastocerus (Wagner, 1844) – one species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population
Marsh deer

Brown cervid

B. dichotomus
Illiger, 1815
Scattered parts of central South America (former range in red)
Size: 153–191 cm (60–75 in) long, plus 12–16 cm (5–6 in) tail; 110–127 cm (43–50 in) tall at shoulder

Habitat: Savanna, shrubland, and inland wetlands

Diet: Grasses, reeds and aquatic plants, as well as shrubs and vines
 VU 


Unknown Population declining

Genus Capreolus (Gray, 1821) – two species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population
Roe deer

Two brown cervids

C. capreolus
Linnaeus, 1758

Four subspecies
  • C. c. canus
  • C. c. capreolus
  • C. c. caucasicus
  • C. c. italicus
Europe
Size: 104–124 cm (41–49 in) long, plus 2–3 cm (1–1 in) tail; 66–84 cm (26–33 in) tall at shoulder

Habitat: Forest, shrubland, grassland, and inland wetlands

Diet: Wide variety of plants
 LC 


15,000,000 Population increasing

Siberian roe deer

Reddish-brown cervid

C. pygargus
Pallas, 1771

Four subspecies
  • C. p. bedfordi
  • C. p. mantschuricus
  • C. p. ochraceus
  • C. p. pygargus
Central and northeastern Asia Size: 95–140 cm (37–55 in) long, plus 20–40 cm (8–16 in) tail; 65–95 cm (26–37 in) tall at shoulder

Habitat: Forest, shrubland, grassland, and inland wetlands

Diet: Grasses
 LC 


Unknown Population declining

Genus Hippocamelus (Leuckart, 1816) – two species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population
South Andean deer

Brown cervid

H. bisulcus
Molina, 1782
Southern Andes mountains
Size: 144–156 cm (57–61 in) long, plus 12–13 cm (5–5 in) tail; 80–90 cm (31–35 in) tall at shoulder

Habitat: Forest, shrubland, grassland, inland wetlands, rocky areas, and desert

Diet: Varied range of grasses and other plants
 EN 


1,000–1,500 Population declining

Taruca

Brown cervid

H. antisensis
d'Orbigny, 1834
Andes mountains
Size: 69–77 cm (27–30 in) tall at shoulder

Habitat: Shrubland, grassland, rocky areas, and other

Diet: Sedges and grasses
 VU 


4,200–5,700 Population declining

Genus Mazama (Rafinesque, 1817) – nine species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population
Amazonian brown brocket

Drawing of brown cervid

M. nemorivaga
F. Cuvier, 1817
Northern and central South America
Size: 75–100 cm (30–39 in) long, plus 6–11 cm (2–4 in) tail; 50 cm (20 in) tall at shoulder

Habitat: Forest and shrubland

Diet: Fruit, as well as leaves and shoots
 LC 


Unknown Population declining

Central American red brocket

Brown cervid

M. temama
Kerr, 1792

Three subspecies
  • M. t. cerasina
  • M. t. reperticia
  • M. t. temama
Central America
Size: 80–110 cm (31–43 in) long, plus 10–14 cm (4–6 in) tail; 60–70 cm (24–28 in) tall at shoulder

Habitat: Forest, shrubland, grassland, and inland wetlands

Diet: Fruit, as well as seeds, grass, shoots, vines, and sometimes crops such as beans
 DD 


Unknown Population declining

Dwarf brocket M. chunyi
Hershkovitz, 1959
Central Andes mountains
Size: About 70 cm (28 in) long; about 38 cm (15 in) tall at shoulder

Habitat: Forest, shrubland, and grassland

Diet: Fruit and shrubs
 VU 


Unknown Population declining

Gray brocket

Brown cervid

M. gouazoubira
Fischer von Waldheim, 1814

Eleven subspecies
  • M. g. cita
  • M. g. gouazoubira
  • M. g. medemi
  • M. g. mexianae
  • M. g. murelia
  • M. g. nemorivaga
  • M. g. permira
  • M. g. sanctaemartae
  • M. g. rondoni
  • M. g. superciliaris
  • M. g. tschudii
Eastern South America
Size: 85–105 cm (33–41 in) long

Habitat: Forest, savanna, shrubland, and inland wetlands

Diet: Wide variety of plants as well as fruit
 LC 


Unknown Population declining

Little red brocket

Brown cervid

M. rufina
Bourcier, Pucheran, 1852
Northern Andes mountains
Size: About 78 cm (31 in) long, plus 8 cm (3 in) tail; about 45 cm (18 in) tall at shoulder

Habitat: Forest, shrubland, and grassland

Diet: Herbs as well as other plants
 VU 


Unknown Population declining

Mérida brocket M. bricenii
Thomas, 1908
Northern Andes mountains
Size: 80–95 cm (31–37 in) long, plus 8–9 cm (3–4 in) tail; 45–50 cm (18–20 in) tall at shoulder

Habitat: Forest, shrubland, grassland, and rocky areas

Diet: Fruit and shrubs
 VU 


Unknown Population declining

Pygmy brocket

Brown cervid

M. nana
Hensel, 1872
Southeastern South America (possible range in yellow)
Size: About 78 cm (31 in) long, plus 8 cm (3 in) tail; less than 50 cm (20 in) tall at shoulder

Habitat: Forest

Diet: Unknown
 VU 


Unknown Unknown

Red brocket

Reddish-brown cervid

M. americana
Erxleben, 1777

Twelve subspecies
  • M. a. americana
  • M. a. carrikeri
  • M. a. gualea
  • M. a. jucunda
  • M. a. rosii
  • M. a. rufa
  • M. a. sarae
  • M. a. sheila
  • M. a. trinitatis
  • M. a. whitelyi
  • M. a. zamora
  • M. a. zetta
Northern and central South America
Size: 103–146 cm (41–57 in) long, plus 8–15 cm (3–6 in) tail; 65–80 cm (26–31 in) tall at shoulder

Habitat: Forest

Diet: Fruit and shrubs
 DD 


Unknown Unknown

Small red brocket

M. bororo
Duarte, 1996
Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil (possible range in yellow)
Size: 85 cm (33 in) long, plus 11–14 cm (4–6 in) tail; 50–60 cm (20–24 in) tall at shoulder

Habitat: Forest

Diet: Fruit, leaves, and sprouts
 VU 


8,500 Population declining

Genus Odocoileus (Rafinesque, 1832) – three species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population
Mule deer

Two brown cervids

O. hemionus
Rafinesque, 1817

Ten subspecies
  • O. h. californicus (California mule deer)
  • O. h. cerrosensis (Cedros Island mule deer)
  • O. h. columbianus (Black-tailed deer)
  • O. h. eremicus (desert mule deer)
  • O. h. fuliginatus (southern mule deer)
  • O. h. hemionus (Rocky Mountain mule deer)
  • O. h. inyoensis (Inyo mule deer)
  • O. h. peninsulae (peninsular mule deer)
  • O. h. sheldoni (Tiburon Island mule deer)
  • O. h. sitkensis (Sitka deer)
Western North America
Size: 152–203 cm (60–80 in) long; 80–106 cm (31–42 in) tall at shoulder

Habitat: Forest, savanna, shrubland, grassland, inland wetlands, desert, and intertidal marine

Diet: Leaves, twigs, acorns, legume seeds, and fleshy fruits
 LC 


Unknown Population steady

Yucatan brown brocket

Gray cervid

O. pandora
Merriam, 1901
Yucatán Peninsula
Size: About 105 cm (41 in) long, plus 8 cm (3 in) tail

Habitat: Forest, shrubland, and grassland

Diet: Fruit, as well as other plants
 VU 


Unknown Population declining

White-tailed deer

Brown cervid

O. virginianus
Rafinesque, 1832

38 subspecies
  • O. v. acapulcensis
  • O. v. borealis (northern white-tailed deer)
  • O. v. cariacou
  • O. v. carminis (Carmen Mountains white-tailed deer)
  • O. v. chiriquensis
  • O. v. clavium (Key deer)
  • O. v. couesi (Coues' white-tailed deer)
  • O. v. curassavicus
  • O. v. dacotensis (Dakota white-tailed deer)
  • O. v. goudotii
  • O. v. gymnotis (South American white-tailed deer)
  • O. v. hiltonensis (Hilton Head white-tailed deer)
  • O. v. leucurus (Columbian white-tailed deer)
  • O. v. macrourus (Kansas white-tailed deer)
  • O. v. margaritae
  • O. v. mcilhennyi (Avery Island white-tailed deer)
  • O. v. mexicanus
  • O. v. miquihuanensis
  • O. v. nelsoni
  • O. v. nemoralis (Nicaraguan white-tailed deer)
  • O. v. nigribarbis (Blackbeard Island white-tailed deer)
  • O. v. oaxacensis
  • O. v. ochrourus (northwestern white-tailed deer)
  • O. v. osceola (Florida coastal white-tailed deer)
  • O. v. peruvianus (South American white-tailed deer)
  • O. v. rothschildi
  • O. v. seminolus (Florida white-tailed deer)
  • O. v. sinaloae
  • O. v. taurinsulae (Bulls Island white-tailed deer)
  • O. v. texanus (Texas white-tailed deer)
  • O. v. thomasi
  • O. v. toltecus
  • O. v. tropicalis
  • O. v. ustus
  • O. v. venatorius (Hunting Island white-tailed deer)
  • O. v. veraecrucis
  • O. v. virginianus (Virginia white-tailed deer)
  • O. v. yucatanensis
North America and northern South America
Size: 150–200 cm (59–79 in) long, plus 10–28 cm (4–11 in) tail

Habitat: Forest, savanna, shrubland, grassland, inland wetlands, desert, neritic marine, intertidal marine, and coastal marine

Diet: Wide variety of vegetation and grasses
 LC 


Unknown Population steady

Genus Ozotoceros (Ameghino, 1891) – one species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population
Pampas deer

Brown cervid

O. bezoarticus
Linnaeus, 1758

Five subspecies
  • O. b. arerunguaensis
  • O. b. bezoarticus
  • O. b. celer
  • O. b. leucogaster
  • O. b. uruguayensis
Scattered central South America
Size: 110–140 cm (43–55 in) long; 70–75 cm (28–30 in) tall at shoulder

Habitat: Savanna, grassland, and inland wetlands

Diet: Grasses and shrubs
 NT 


20,000–80,000 Population declining

Genus Pudu (Gray, 1852) – two species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population
Northern pudú P. mephistophiles
Winton, 1896
Northern Andes mountains
Size: 60–85 cm (24–33 in) long plus 3–5 cm (1–2 in) tail; 32–35 cm (13–14 in) tall at shoulder

Habitat: Forest, shrubland, and grassland

Diet: Leaves of ferns, trees, vines, herbs and shrubs
 DD 


Unknown Population declining

Southern pudú

Small brown cervid

P. puda
Molina, 1782
Southern Andes mountains
Size: 60–85 cm (24–33 in) long plus 3–5 cm (1–2 in) tail; 35–45 cm (14–18 in) tall at shoulder

Habitat: Forest and shrubland

Diet: Leaves of ferns, trees, vines, herbs and shrubs
 NT 


Unknown Population declining

Genus Rangifer (H. Smith, 1827) – one species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population
Reindeer

Grayish-brown cervid

R. tarandus
Linnaeus, 1758

Fourteen subspecies
Arctic North America, Europe, and Asia
Size: 150–230 cm (59–91 in) long; up to 120 cm (47 in) tall at shoulder

Habitat: Forest and grassland

Diet: Lichen, forbs, sedges, grasses, and shrubs
 VU 


2,890,000 Population declining

Subfamily Cervinae

Genus Axis (H. Smith, 1827) – four species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population
Chital

Brown cervid with white spots

A. axis
Erxleben, 1777
Indian subcontinent
Size: 70 cm (28 in) long plus 20 cm (8 in) tail; 35–38 cm (14–15 in) tall at shoulder

Habitat: Forest, savanna, and grassland

Diet: Wide variety of grasses as well as fallen leaves, flowers, and fruit
 LC 


Unknown Unknown

Calamian deer

Brown cervid

A. calamianensis
Heude, 1888
Calamian Islands of the Philippines Size: 100–175 cm (39–69 in) long, plus 12–38 cm (5–15 in) tail; 60–100 cm (24–39 in) tall at shoulder

Habitat: Forest, savanna, and grassland

Diet: Leaves
 EN 


Unknown Population declining

Bawean deer

Brown cervid

A. kuhlii
Temminck, 1836
Bawean island of Indonesia
Size: 100–175 cm (39–69 in) long

Habitat: Forest and grassland

Diet: Herbs and grasses, as well as young leaves and twigs
 CR 


200–500 Population steady

Indian hog deer

Brown cervid

A. porcinus
Zimmermann, 1780
Southern and southeast Asia
Size: 105–115 cm (41–45 in) long, plus 20 cm (8 in) tail; 60–72 cm (24–28 in) tall at shoulder

Habitat: Savanna, shrubland, grassland, and inland wetlands

Diet: Young grasses, as well as herbs, flowers, fruit, and shrubs
 EN 


Unknown Population declining

Genus Cervus (Linnaeus, 1758) – five species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population
Thorold's deer

Two brown cervids

C. albirostris
Przhevalsky, 1883
Central China Size: 155–210 cm (61–83 in) long, plus 10–13 cm (4–5 in) tail; 115–140 cm (45–55 in) tall at shoulder

Habitat: Forest, shrubland, and grassland

Diet: Grass, herbs, lichens, leaves, and bark of trees and bushes
 VU 


Unknown Unknown

Elk

Brown cervid

C. canadensis
Erxleben, 1777

Thirteen subspecies
North America and Asia (former range in light green)
Size: 210–280 cm (83–110 in) long plus 10–22 cm (4–9 in) tail; 120–175 cm (47–69 in) tall at shoulder

Habitat: Forest, shrubland, and grassland

Diet: Shrub and tree shoots, as well as grasses, sedges, and shrubs
 LC 


Unknown Population increasing

Red deer

Brown cervid

C. elaphus
Linnaeus, 1758

Nine subspecies
Europe and western Asia (former range in light green)
Size: 160–270 cm (63–106 in) long; 75–150 cm (30–59 in) tall at shoulder

Habitat: Forest, shrubland, grassland, and rocky areas

Diet: Shrub and tree shoots, as well as grasses, sedges, shrubs, fruit, and seeds
 LC 


Unknown Population increasing

Central Asian red deer

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C. hanglu
Wagner, 1844

Three subspecies
Central Asia Size:

Habitat: Forest, shrubland, grassland, and inland wetlands

Diet: Branches of young deciduous trees
 LC 


2,000-2,500+ Population increasing

Sika deer

Brown cervid with white spots

C. nippon
Temminck, 1838

Sixteen subspecies
East Asia Size: 95–180 cm (37–71 in) long plus 7–13 cm (3–5 in) tail; 64–109 cm (25–43 in) tall at shoulder

Habitat: Forest, shrubland, and grassland

Diet: Grass, as well as shrubs and fruit
 LC 


Unknown Population increasing

Genus Dama (Frisch, 1775) – two species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population
European fallow deer

Brown cervid with white spots

D. dama
Linnaeus, 1758
Europe and west Asia; introduced scattered areas worldwide (in teal)
Size: 130–175 cm (51–69 in) long, plus 15–23 cm (6–9 in) tail; 90–100 cm (35–39 in) tall at shoulder

Habitat: Forest, shrubland, and grassland

Diet: Grasses, mast, and shrubs, as well as leaves, buds, shoots, and bark
 LC 


Unknown Unknown

Persian fallow deer

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D. mesopotamica
Brooke, 1875
Iran and Israel Size: 130–175 cm (51–69 in) long, plus 15–23 cm (6–9 in) tail; 90–100 cm (35–39 in) tall at shoulder

Habitat: Forest, savanna, and shrubland

Diet: Grasses, mast, and shrubs, as well as leaves, buds, shoots, and bark
 EN 


Unknown Population increasing

Genus Elaphodus (H. Milne-Edwards, 1872) – one species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population
Tufted deer

Brown cervid

E. cephalophus
H. Milne-Edwards, 1872

Four subspecies
  • E. c. cephalophus
  • E. c. fociensis
  • E. c. ichangensis
  • E. c. michianus
Central China and northeastern Myanmar Size: 110–160 cm (43–63 in) long, plus 7–16 cm (3–6 in) tail; 50–70 cm (20–28 in) tall at shoulder

Habitat: Forest and shrubland

Diet: Grass, as well as shrubs, fruits, bamboo, and herbs
 NT 


Unknown Population declining

Genus Elaphurus (H. Milne-Edwards, 1872) – one species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population
Père David's deer

Three brown cervids

E. davidianus
Milne-Edwards, 1866
China Size: 183–216 cm (72–85 in) long, plus 22–36 cm (9–14 in) tail

Habitat: Grassland, inland wetlands, and intertidal marine

Diet: Grass, reeds, and bush leaves
 EW 


Unknown Unknown

Genus Muntiacus (Rafinesque, 1815) – eleven species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population
Bornean yellow muntjac M. atherodes
Groves, Grubb, 1982
Borneo Size: 90–100 cm (35–39 in) long, plus 14–20 cm (6–8 in) tail; 65 cm (26 in) tall at shoulder

Habitat: Forest

Diet: Herbs, seeds, grass, buds, leaves, and fruit
 NT 


Unknown Population declining

Fea's muntjac

Drawing of a brown cervid

M. feae
Thomas, Doria, 1889
Southern Myanmar and Thailand
Size: 90–100 cm (35–39 in) long, plus 10–17 cm (4–7 in) tail; 50–60 cm (20–24 in) tall at shoulder

Habitat: Forest

Diet: Fruit and leaves, as well as grass and shoots
 DD 


Unknown Unknown

Giant muntjac M. vuquangensis
Tuoc, Dung, Dawson, Arctander, & Mackinnon, 1994
Northern Vietnam and Laos
Size: 110–115 cm (43–45 in) long, plus 17 cm (7 in) tail; 65–70 cm (26–28 in) tall at shoulder

Habitat: Forest

Diet: Fruit and leaves
 CR 


Unknown Population declining

Gongshan muntjac M. gongshanensis
Ma, 1990
South-central China
Size: 95–105 cm (37–41 in) long, plus 9–16 cm (4–6 in) tail; 55–57 cm (22–22 in) tall at shoulder

Habitat: Forest

Diet: Unknown
 DD 


Unknown Population declining

Hairy-fronted muntjac

Brown cervid with a white rump

M. crinifrons
P. L. Sclater, 1885
Southeastern China Size: 98–113 cm (39–44 in) long, plus 21 cm (8 in) tail

Habitat: Forest and shrubland

Diet: Wide variety of tree leaves and twigs, forbs, grass, and fruit
 VU 


Unknown Population declining

Indian muntjac

Brown cervid

M. muntjak
Zimmermann, 1780

Eleven subspecies
  • M. m. annamensis
  • M. m. aureus
  • M. m. curvostylis
  • M. m. guangdongensis
  • M. m. malabaricus
  • M. m. menglalis
  • M. m. montanus (Sumatran muntjac)
  • M. m. muntjak
  • M. m. nigripes
  • M. m. vaginalis
  • M. m. yunnanensis
Southern and Southeast Asia
Size: 89–135 cm (35–53 in) long, plus 13–23 cm (5–9 in) tail; 40–65 cm (16–26 in) tall at shoulder

Habitat: Forest

Diet: Fruit, buds, tender leaves, flowers, herbs, and young grass
 LC 


Unknown Population declining

Leaf muntjac M. putaoensis
Amato, Egan & Rabinowitz, 1999
Myanmar Size: 77–83 cm (30–33 in) long, plus 8–12 cm (3–5 in) tail; 50 cm (20 in) tall at shoulder

Habitat: Forest

Diet: Fruit and a range of plant materials
 DD 


Unknown Population declining

Pu Hoat muntjac M. puhoatensis
Trai, 1997
Vietnam Size: Small and similar to the Truong Son muntjac, but specific measurements not available

Habitat: Forest

Diet: Unknown
 DD 


Unknown Unknown

Reeves's muntjac

Brown cervid

M. reevesi
Ogilby, 1839

Three subspecies
  • M. r. jiangkouensis
  • M. r. micrurus
  • M. r. reevesi
Eastern China; introduced to Britain and Japan Size: 70–113 cm (28–44 in) long, plus 10 cm (4 in) tail; 43–45 cm (17–18 in) tall at shoulder

Habitat: Forest, shrubland, and grassland

Diet: Bamboo, seeds, bark, fruit and foliage, as well as eggs, carrion, small mammals, and ground-nesting birds
 LC 


Unknown Population declining

Roosevelt's muntjac M. rooseveltorum
Osgood, 1932

Size: Small with shoulder height estimated at about 40 cm (16 in), but specific measurements not available

Habitat: Forest

Diet: Leaves and fruit
 DD 


Unknown Population declining

Truong Son muntjac M. truongsonensis
Giao, Tuoc, Dung, Wikramanayake, Amato, Arctander, & Mackinnon, 1997
Southern Vietnam Size: Small with shoulder height estimated at about 40 cm (16 in), but specific measurements not available

Habitat: Forest

Diet: Leaves and fruit
 DD 


Unknown Population declining

Genus Rucervus (Hodgson, 1838) – three species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population
Barasingha

Brown cervid

R. duvaucelii
Cuvier, 1823

Three subspecies
  • R. d. branderi (Southern swamp deer)
  • R. d. duvaucelii (Western swamp deer)
  • R. d. ranjitsinhi (Eastern swamp deer)
Scattered parts of south Asia (historical range in yellow)
Size: About 180 cm (71 in) long; 119–124 cm (47–49 in) tall at shoulder

Habitat: Forest, savanna, grassland, and inland wetlands

Diet: Grass and aquatic plants
 VU 


Unknown Population declining

Eld's deer

Brown cervid

R. eldii
McClelland, 1842

Three subspecies
  • R. e. eldii (Sangai)
  • R. e. siamensis (Burmese brow-antlered deer)
  • R. e. thamin (Thai brow-antlered deer)
Scattered parts of southeast Asia Size: Males 160–170 cm (63–67 in) long, plus 22–25 cm (9–10 in) tail; 115–130 cm (45–51 in) tall at shoulder.

Females 140–150 cm (55–59 in) long, plus 22–25 cm (9–10 in) tail; 90–100 cm (35–39 in) tall at shoulder.

Habitat: Forest, savanna, shrubland, grassland, and inland wetlands

Diet: A variety of grasses, fruit, and herbaceous and wetland plants

 EN 


Unknown Population declining

Schomburgk's deerExtinct

Black-and-white photo of a cervid

R. schomburgki
Blyth, 1863
Central Thailand Size: Unknown

Habitat: Grassland and inland wetlands

Diet: Unknown
 EX 


0 Population steady

Genus Rusa (H. Smith, 1827) – four species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population
Visayan spotted deer

White-spotted brown cervid

R. alfredi
P. L. Sclater, 1870
Philippines Size: 120–130 cm (47–51 in) long, plus 8–13 cm (3–5 in) tail; 60–80 cm (24–31 in) tall at shoulder

Habitat: Forest, shrubland, and grassland

Diet: Cogon grass and young leaves and buds
 EN 


700 Population declining

Philippine deer

Brown cervid

R. marianna
Desmarest, 1822

Four subspecies
  • R. m. barandana
  • R. m. marianna
  • R. m. nigella
  • R. m. nigricans
Philippines Size: 100–151 cm (39–59 in) long; 55–70 cm (22–28 in) tall at shoulder

Habitat: Forest and grassland

Diet: Grass
 VU 


Unknown Population declining

Javan rusa

Two brown cervids

R. timorensis
Blainville, 1822

Seven subspecies
  • R. t. djonga
  • R. t. floresiensis (Flores rusa deer)
  • R. t. macassaricus (Celebes rusa deer)
  • R. t. moluccensis (Moluccan rusa deer)
  • R. t. renschi
  • R. t. russa (Javan rusa deer)
  • R. t. timorensis (Timor rusa deer)
Indonesia and East Timor
Size: 142–185 cm (56–73 in) long, plus 10–30 cm (4–12 in) tail; 80–110 cm (31–43 in) tall at shoulder

Habitat: Forest, savanna, and grassland

Diet: Grass, herbs, the leaves and bark of shrubs, and seaweed
 VU 


10,000 Population declining

Sambar deer

Brown cervid

R. unicolor
Kerr, 1792

Seven subspecies
  • R. u. brookei (Bornean sambar)
  • R. u. cambojensis (Mainland Southeast Asian sambar)
  • R. u. dejeani (South China sambar)
  • R. u. equina (Malayan sambar)
  • R. u. hainana (Hainan sambar)
  • R. u. swinhoii (Formosan sambar)
  • R. u. unicolor (Sri Lankan sambar)
South and Southeast Asia including Southern China
Size: 160–270 cm (63–106 in) long, plus 25–30 cm (10–12 in) tail; 102–160 cm (40–63 in) tall at shoulder

Habitat: Forest, savanna, shrubland, grassland, and inland wetlands

Diet: Wide variety of plants
 VU 


Unknown Population declining

Subfamily Hydropotinae

Genus Hydropotes (R. Swinhoe, 1870) – one species
Common name Scientific name and subspecies Range Size and ecology IUCN status and estimated population
Water deer

Brown cervid

H. inermis
Swinhoe, 1870

Two subspecies
  • H. i. argyropus (Korean water deer)
  • H. i. inermis (Chinese water deer)
East China and Korean peninsula Size: 89–103 cm (35–41 in) long, plus 6–7 cm (2–3 in) tail; 45–57 cm (18–22 in) tall at shoulder

Habitat: Forest, shrubland, grassland, inland wetlands, and intertidal marine

Diet: Reeds, coarse grasses, vegetables, and beets
 VU 


Unknown Population declining

See also

Sources